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Cryptorchidism is a condition affecting the dog in which one or both testicles do not fully descend into the scrotum. The condition may be presented in two forms:

1.) Unilateral cryptorchidism refers to the normal descent of a singular testis.

2.) Bilateral cryptorchidism results in the retention of both testes.

Due to the thermal suppression of spermatogenesis, bilateral cryptorchids are sterile while unilateral cryptorchids are usually fertile.

Cryptorchidism is estimated to exist in 6-8% of the canine population (Canine and Feline Endocrinology and Reproduction, Feldman and Nelson). It is a congenital anomaly which is described as a sex limited (occurs only in males) trait. Current research provides that it is probable that multiple genes are responsible for the condition of cryptorchidism. Dogs that are ryptorchid should be neutered and any sire or dam that reproduce it repeatedly should also be spayed or neutered.